Local Observations (Supersites)
This submodule characterizes the structures in and of interactions among clouds, aerosols, water vapor and precipitation with a vertical resolution comparable to the HD(CP)² model. These efforts are concentrated at the Supersites where the best available instrumentation allows for continuous high-resolution vertical proﬁling. Challenges are the exploitation of sensor synergies at a given site, the understanding and consideration of three dimensional effects in retrieval methods, and the development of the same products across the sites with the goal to evaluate the HD(CP)² simulations and to support cloud and precipitation parameterization development for climate models. The ensuing continuous ﬂow of standardized quality-controlled observations processed by a common 1DVAR retrieval methodology supplemented by several Value Added Products (VAP) will feed a data base optimally suited to derive multi-parameter statistics for parameterization development and to interrogate processes like cloud formation, entrainment, and precipitation initiation and formation.
This submodule will integrate the observations of ground-based networks (polarimetric precipitation radars, ceilometers, GPS receivers, etc.) with satellite observations from CloudSat and CALIPSO, from speciﬁc sensors on polar orbiting satellites like MERIS and MODIS, and from the geostationary satellite MSG. Integration will focus both on temporally highly resolved data by merging e.g. MSG and radar network data, but also on products based on the low frequency temporal sampling achievable from polar orbiting satellites. Our experience from observation exploitation for NWP evaluation (GOP) will be combined with techniques applied in climate model evaluation in the development of a standardized CMOR tool. The derived advanced observations-based metrics will be adapted to climate model parameterization evaluation and thus be deﬁned in cooperation with the module ”Synthesis”.